Receive All Updates Via Facebook. Just Click the Like Button Below...

Powered By Mirasaft
Skip To Continue


With every new iPhone, most of the discussion centers around its look and not what comes inside. But, according to reports, Apple has designed a new dual-core A7 system on a chip for the iPhone 5S. If rumors are true, the A7 could supposedly be 31 percent faster, representing a serious slowdown in spec improvement.


Apple will likely unveil the iPhone 7 in September 2016, and a new rumor has surfacedabout the camera. According to Ming-Chi Kuo from KGI Securities,

Fcabeook v/s Twitter- Who is ahead in the competition

"Do you use Twitter?" What a stupid question right?. I know those who are in LinkedIn most probably will have a twitter account. But do you really understand my question?. I used the word "use" not "have or used".


LinkedIn's career expert Nicole Williams helps elaborate on six ways to optimize your profile and attract more recruiters to you now.


Right now we're seeing messages spreading across Facebook claiming to have found a way to allow you to sneakily tell who has been looking at your profile.

Wednesday, April 6, 2016

Whatsapp end-to-end Encryption 2

Continuing Whatsapp end-to-end Encrpytion  Part 2
If you didn't read Part1 read now

Group Messages

Traditional unencrypted messenger apps typically employ “server-side fan-out” for group messages. A client wishing to send a message to a group of users transmits a single message, which is then distributed N times to the N different group members by the server.

This is in contrast to “client-side fan-out,” where a client would transmit a single message N times to the N different group members itself. Messages to WhatsApp groups build on the pairwise encrypted sessions outlined above to achieve efficient server-side fan-out for most messages sent to groups. This is accomplished using the “Sender Keys” component of the Signal Messaging Protocol.

The first time a WhatsApp group member sends a message to a group:
1. The sender generates a random 32-byte Chain Key.
2. The sender generates a random Curve25519 Signature Key key pair.
 3. The sender combines the 32-byte Chain Key and the public key from the Signature Key into a Sender Key message.
4. The sender individually encrypts the Sender Key to each member of the group, using the pairwise messaging protocol explained previously.

For all subsequent messages to the group:
1. The sender derives a Message Key from the Chain Key, and updates the Chain Key.
2. The sender encrypts the message using AES256 in CBC mode.
3. The sender signs the ciphertext using the Signature Key.
 4. The sender transmits the single ciphertext message to the server, which does server-side fan-out to all group participants.

The “hash ratchet” of the message sender’s Chain Key provides forward secrecy. Whenever a group member leaves, all group participants clear their Sender Key and start over.

Call Setup

WhatsApp calls are also end-to-end encrypted. When a WhatsApp user initiates a call:

 1. The initiator builds an encrypted session with the recipient (as outlined in Section Initiating Session Setup), if one does not already exist.
 2. The initiator generates a random 32-byte SRTP master secret.
3. The initiator transmits an encrypted message to the recipient that signals an incoming call, and contains the SRTP master secret.
4. If the responder answers the call, a SRTP encrypted call ensues.

Verifying Keys

 WhatsApp users additionally have the option to verify the keys of the other users with whom they are communicating so that they are able to confirm that an unauthorized third party (or WhatsApp) has not initiated a man-in-the-middle attack. This can be done by scanning a QR code, or by comparing a 60-digit number.

The QR code contains:
1. A version.
2. The user identifier for both parties.
3. The full 32-byte public Identity Key for both parties.
When either user scans the other’s QR code, the keys are compared to ensure that what is in the QR code matches the Identity Key as retrieved from the server.
 The 60-digit number is computed by concatenating the two 30-digit numeric fingerprints for each 
user’s Identity Key. To calculate a 30-digit numeric fingerprint:

1. Iteratively SHA-512 hash the public Identity Key and user identifier 5200 times.
2. Take the first 30 bytes of the final hash output.
3. Split the 30-byte result into six 5-byte chunks.
4. Convert each 5-byte chunk into 5 digits by interpreting each 5-byte chunk as a big-endian unsigned integer and reducing it modulo 100000.
5. Concatenate the six groups of five digits into thirty digits.

Transport Security

All communication between WhatsApp clients and WhatsApp servers is layered within a separate encrypted channel. On Windows Phone, iPhone, and Android, those end-to-end encryption capable clients use Noise Pipes with Curve25519, AES-GCM, and SHA256 from the Noise Protocol Framework for long running interactive connections.
This provides clients with a few nice properties:
1. Extremely fast lightweight connection setup and resume.
2. Encrypts metadata to hide it from unauthorized network observers. No information about the connecting user’s identity is revealed.
3. No client authentication secrets are stored on the server. Clients authenticate themselves using a Curve25519 key pair, so the server only stores a client’s public authentication key. If the server’s user database is ever compromised, no private authentication credentials will be revealed.

Messages between WhatsApp users are protected with an endto-end encryption protocol so that third parties and WhatsApp cannot read them and so that the messages can only be decrypted by the recipient. All types of WhatsApp messages (including chats, group chats, images, videos, voice messages and files) and WhatsApp calls are protected by end-to-end encryption.

WhatsApp servers do not have access to the private keys of WhatsApp users, and WhatsApp users have the option to verify keys in order to ensure the integrity of their communication.

The Signal Protocol library used by WhatsApp is Open Source, available here:

Whatsapp end-to-end Encryption

Leading instant messenger Whatsapp with 1 billion users now comes with Encryption. Security and Privacy are always a concern for every internet users. Recently iPhone lock issue with FBI put a thought in people about guarantee of their privacy. Whatsapp were working on their users privacy for a long time. 

 Encryption feature activated when you updated the latest version of Whatsapp. It simply means that your messages, calls, photos , videos sent through whatsapp is not accessible to any third parties like cyber criminals, hackers and even whatsapp Inc itself. But it arises many questions about the stand of Whatsapp When government will push power to de-crypt messages. 

I like to share detailed technical details of the Whatsapp end-to-end Encryption below.( From the white paper published by Whatsapp)

Read Whatsapp Blog about it here.

 Public Key Types
• Identity Key Pair – A long-term Curve25519 key pair, generated at install time.
• Signed Pre Key – A medium-term Curve25519 key pair, generated at install time, signed by the           Identity Key, and rotated on a periodic timed basis.
 • One-Time Pre Keys – A queue of Curve25519 key pairs for one time use, generated at install time,    and replenished as needed.
Session Key Types
• Root Key – A 32-byte value that is used to create Chain Keys.
• Chain Key – A 32-byte value that is used to create Message Keys.
 • Message Key – An 80-byte value that is used to encrypt message contents. 32 bytes are used for an      AES-256 key, 32 bytes for a HMAC-SHA256 key, and 16 bytes for an IV.

Client Registration 
At registration time, a WhatsApp client transmits its public Identity Key, public Signed Pre Key (with its signature), and a batch of public One-Time Pre Keys to the server. The WhatsApp server stores these public keys associated with the user’s identifier. At no time does the WhatsApp server have access to any of the client’s private keys.

 Initiating Session Setup

                         To communicate with another WhatsApp user, a WhatsApp client first needs to establish an encrypted session. Once the session is established, clients do not need to rebuild a new session with each other until the existing session state is lost through an external event such as an app reinstall or device change.

To establish a session:

1. The initiating client (“initiator”) requests the public Identity Key, public Signed Pre Key, and a single public One-Time Pre Key for the recipient.
 2. The server returns the requested public key values. A One-Time Pre Key is only used once, so it is removed from server storage after being requested. If the recipient’s latest batch of One-Time Pre Keys has been consumed and the recipient has not replenished them, no One-Time Pre Key will be returned.
3. The initiator saves the recipient’s Identity Key as Irecipient, the Signed Pre Key as Srecipient, and the One-Time Pre Key as Orecipient.
4. The initiator generates an ephemeral Curve25519 key pair, Einitiator.
5. The initiator loads its own Identity Key as Iinitiator.
6. The initiator calculates a master secret as master_secret = ECDH(Iinitiator, Srecipient) || ECDH(Einitiator, Irecipient) || ECDH(Einitiator, Srecipient) || ECDH(Einitiator, Orecipient). If there is no One Time Pre Key, the final ECDH is omitted.
7. The initiator uses HKDF to create a Root Key and Chain Keys from the master_secret.

 Receiving Session Setup

 After building a long-running encryption session, the initiator can immediately start sending messages to the recipient, even if the recipient is offline. Until the recipient responds, the initiator includes the information (in the header of all messages sent) that the recipient requires to build a corresponding session. This includes the initiator’s Einitiator and Iinitiator. When the recipient receives a message that includes session setup information:

1. The recipient calculates the corresponding master_secret using its own private keys and the public keys advertised in the header of the incoming message.
2. The recipient deletes the One-Time Pre Key used by the initiator.
3. The initiator uses HKDF to derive a corresponding Root Key and Chain Keys from the master_secret.

 Exchanging Messages

 Once a session has been established, clients exchange messages that are protected with a Message Key using AES256 in CBC mode for encryption and HMAC-SHA256 for authentication.

The Message Key changes for each message transmitted, and is ephemeral, such that the Message Key used to encrypt a message cannot be reconstructed from the session state after a message has been transmitted or received.

The Message Key is derived from a sender’s Chain Key that “ratchets” forward with every message sent. Additionally, a new ECDH agreement is performed with each message roundtrip to create a new Chain Key. This provides forward secrecy through the combination of both an immediate “hash ratchet” and a round trip “DH ratchet.”

Calculating a Chain Key from a Root Key 

Each time a new Message Key is needed by a message sender, it is calculated as:

1. Message Key = HMAC-SHA256(Chain Key, 0x01).
2. The Chain Key is then updated as Chain Key = HMAC-SHA256(Chain Key, 0x02).

 This causes the Chain Key to “ratchet” forward, and also means that a stored Message Key can’t be used to derive current or past values of the Chain Key.
Calculating a Chain Key from a Root Key
Each time a message is transmitted, an ephemeral Curve25519 public key is advertised along with it. Once a response is received, a new Chain Key and Root Key are calculated as:
 1. ephemeral_secret = ECDH(Ephemeralsender, Ephemeralrecipient).
2. Chain Key, Root Key = HKDF(Root Key, ephemeral_secret).

A chain is only ever used to send messages from one user, so message keys are not reused. Because of the way Message Keys and Chain Keys are calculated, messages can arrive delayed, out of order, or can be lost entirely without any problems.

Transmitting Media and Other Attachments
 Large attachments of any type (video, audio, images, or files) are also end-to-end encrypted:
 1. The WhatsApp user sending a message (“sender”) generates an ephemeral 32 byte AES256 key, and an ephemeral 32 byte HMACSHA256 key.
 2. The sender encrypts the attachment with the AES256 key in CBC mode with a random IV, then appends a MAC of the ciphertext using HMAC-SHA256.
 3. The sender uploads the encrypted attachment to a blob store.
4. The sender transmits a normal encrypted message to the recipient that contains the encryption key, the HMAC key, a SHA256 hash of the encrypted blob, and a pointer to the blob in the blob store.
5. The recipient decrypts the message, retrieves the encrypted blob from the blob store, verifies the SHA256 hash of it, verifies the MAC, and decrypts the plaintext.

Thursday, January 28, 2016

iPhone gets dual camera system for better photos.

Apple will likely unveil the iPhone 7 in September 2016, and a new rumor has surfacedabout the camera. According to Ming-Chi Kuo from KGI Securities, the iPhone 7 Plus will come with a dual-lens system option and leverage LinX’s technology. Apple acquired LinXin April 2015, a camera module maker working on multi-lens systems.

While Ming-Chi Kuo has a good track record when it comes to Apple predictions, Apple has used the same camera module in the iPhone 6 and iPhone 6 Plus, and a better version of this module in the iPhone 6s and iPhone 6s Plus. The only camera difference between the “iPhone Plus” and its 4.7-inch variant is that the large models feature optical image stabilization.
Reserving the dual-camera system to the iPhone 7 Plus would be a departure from Apple’s current strategy when it comes to the camera module. But there could be supply chain constraints pushing Apple to reserve this new module to some models only.
Now, why would Apple put two cameras at the back of your iPhone? There are many potential use cases. LinX has built a hardware and software solution to make two (or more) lenses seamlessly work together. For instance, a dual-lens system could improve background defocus and recreate depth of field — background defocus is one of the reasons why people use low aperture DSLR lenses.
Two cameras could also improve low-light performance, color fidelity and HDR performance. And this module could let you focus on the foreground or the background after capturing a photo, like with a Lytro.
Another option would be to let you switch between one lens and the other for two different optical zoom options. For instance, the second one could let you capture full-size images with 3x magnification. Having an optical zoom would be a good alternative to third-party lenses like the Olloclip lenses.
It’s unclear whether a dual-camera system would slim down camera design. Apple is always looking for ways to make the iPhone slimmer. The company is thinking aboutcurved photosensors, which looks like a more promising way to make the camera slimmer.
Back in December, 60 Minutes unveiled that 800 people are working on the iPhone camera at Apple. It’s an important focus for Apple as millions of people are relying on their iPhones to shoot photos and videos. And switching to a dual-lens system would open a wide array of new creative features.
Post credit: TechCrunch

Saturday, October 24, 2015

Updating to iOS 9.1, Here is what you should know.

For EXTREME TECH by Joel Hruska

Apple released iOS 9.1, its first major point update to iOS 9. Apple typically takes a few months to put a coat of polish on its major updates, and this one is dropping unusually quickly — as the chart below shows, iOS 9.1 spent much less time in beta then any OS update since 8.1. OS 9.0 had a fairly quick turnaround as well, particularly considering that Apple promised to evaluate its performance on a wider range of devices and has gradually increased the number of products that each OS runs on.

Apple’s list of bug fixes and changes for the new operating system is shown below:
  • Live Photos now intelligently senses when you raise or lower your iPhone, so that Live Photos will automatically not record these movements
  • Over 150 new emoji characters with full support for Unicode 7.0 and 8.0 emojis
  • Improved stability including CarPlay, Music, Photos, Safari, and Search
  • Improved performance while in Multitasking UI
  • Fixes an issue that could cause Calendar to become unresponsive in Month view
  • Fixes an issue that prevented Game Center from launching for some users
  • Resolves an issue that zoomed the content of some apps
  • Resolves an issue that could cause an incorrect unread mail count for POP mail accounts
  • Fixes an issue that prevented users from removing recent contacts from new mail or messages
  • Fixes an issue that caused some messages to not appear in Mail search results
  • Resolves an issue that left a gray bar in the body of an Audio Message
  • Fixes an issue that caused activation errors on some carriers
  • Fixes an issue that prevented some apps from updating from the App Store
My own personal phone is an iPhone 5c that I bought in December, 2013. I’ve been quite happy with the phone overall, but the last update I installed to it was iOS 7.1. Over the last few months, I’ve begun to have significant browser stability problems; Safari would often crash repeatedly when accessing webpages that formerly caused no problems. Resetting the device and clearing data hadn’t solved the problem, and while I don’t upgrade to the first version of any operating system, I figured 9.1 would be a decent test case.
The upgrade process
Upgrading to iOS 9.1 was mostly painless, though there were a few snags along the way. After jumping through the usual hoops of clearing enough space on the phone and backing it up, I was prompted to install the latest version of Apple’s iTunes. iTunes has been getting steadily worse for years, and the latest version ( is no exception. Apple has evidently decided that quaint functions like menus and playlists were obsolete and stripped the last vestiges of the classic iTunes view out of the application. Playlist view is still available, but no longer the default method of grouping content.

It’s like everything you hated about Metro apps, but from Apple!
The iOS 9.1 update crashed halfway through the first time around. I had to restore my phone to factory settings before I was able to continue the process. Unfortunately, I didn’t think to grab a screen shot of the error — I was too busy watching a dead progress bar on my phone and praying to the Update Gods that I hadn’t just bricked it. Fortunately, things restarted without incident after that. The entire process (including clearing space, restarting the upgrade, and upgrading iTunes) took about two hours. I restored a backup of previous applications, notes, photos, and video once I had iOS 9.1 installed, which also added some additional time.
Once I had the phone back up and running, I was pleasantly surprised. Every scrap of data, down to previous session cookies in Safari and Notes I’d written in iOS 7 imported perfectly. The Notes app received a major upgrade in iOS 9, but my old notes were rolled into the new application without incident. Generally speaking, everything has “just worked,” and while I’m not going to run down an exhaustive list of every difference (especially not since I’m jumping to iOS 9.1 from iOS 7.1, not iOS 8), the changes and improvements I’ve seen thus far have beenimprovements. UI transitions are a hair slower than they were, but I can live with the difference…
With two, seemingly related exceptions. And they aren’t small ones.
The keyboard and Bluetooth conundrum
Apple’s new operating systems typically don’t improve the performance of older phones, but these problems are typically confined to app performance or UI transitions. My iPhone 5c has no problems there. Its keyboard performance, however, absolutely tanked. iOS 9.1 enables predictive typing by default, but it was impossible to type with that mode enabled; it took half a second to a second for the text I typed to appear on-screen.

Leaving Predictive text on caused serious problems for my iPhone 5C
Disabling both the “Predictive” option shown below improved performance, but there’s still a noticeable input lag between when I type a key on the default iOS keyboard and when the key appears. This problem becomes particularly noticeable if you use a pair of Bluetooth wireless earbuds. Under iOS 9.1, characteristic keyboard “clicks” aren’t transmitted as quickly as they should be. Instead, they’re delayed and often crowd together at the end of a message. Instead of hearing a steady “click-click-click,” the sound is transmitted as “click—click—click—clickclickclickclickclick.” Combined with the still-noticeable delay, it makes typing on iOS 9.1’s default keyboard feel extremely clunky.

Predictive text can be disabled from the settings menu.
The keyboard problem, at least, can be solved by switching to a third-party application. Neither SwiftKey nor Swype suffer from the same delay, Of the two, I’d recommend Swype — while it costs $0.99, SwiftKey slaps a banner across already-limited screen space begging you to give it full access to everything you type, and locks some of its more useful functions behind that particular permission. Swype does neither.

An unremovable pop-up ad unless you give SwiftKey full access? No thank you.
I’ve been unable to fix the Bluetooth problem. It’s only a problem when typing on the keyboard, other audio, like Netflix or audio streaming, works perfectly. Still, keyboard and audio playback are both fairly basic functions; I’m surprised to see a phone stumbling over these issues as opposed to higher-level performance. The update does, however, appear to have fixed my Safari crashes — I just would’ve preferred not trading my keyboard and Bluetooth support for it.
If you choose to update to iOS 9.1, feel free to sound off with your experience. As upgrades go, this one was fairly painless, but I’m hoping a solution crops up for the keyboard woes.

Friday, August 28, 2015

Twitter v/s Facebook - How is ahead in the competition?

Original post was published in LinkedIn :
"Do you use Twitter?" What a stupid question right?. I know those who are in LinkedIn most probably will have a twitter account. But do you really understand my question?. I used the word "use" not "have or used". I am gonna tell you the secret behind the fast growth of Twitter even though they don't have enough users now.

Facebook v/s Twitter

Facebook and Twitter comes under same category,Social Media Networking. But Networking is not rich in Twitter. 651 Million Twitter accounts are unused, and have only 288 Million monthly active users.Facebook has 1.23 Billion monthly active users.There is still about 2 years difference between them.Facebook launched in February 4th ,2014 and Twitter on 21st March 2006.Twitter never revealed total number of registered accounts, tells about only active users.

What is special for Twitter?

Twitter is playing a simple trick to get more users.It is simple but little hard to find. When i tried to share a twitter update i found that. I posted a tweet a about a event at Collab House, a space for collaborate and co-working.That event was conducted by a startup Memilog. My tweet got Favorited by Memilog. When i clicked on "Memilog" , page redirected to Memilog's profile(This time i was not logged into my twitter account), i tried to share a tweet of Memilog then popup box with "Signup" for twitter has came.If it is in Facebook the "Log In" window will come.That is the difference and this is how Twitter is getting new users. The screen and message that will strike into the users mind is very important. This "SignUp" window method will drive more active users for twitter.

Saturday, July 18, 2015

Here is the phone for Music Junkies-Marshell

MARSHALL’S FIRST FORAY into the smartphone world won’t have Apple and Samsung sweating their stake in the market. But the guitar-amp company’s first mobile device does come with a few unique features that could show up in future iterations of the iPhone and Galaxy lineup.

The new Marshall London is an Android Lollipop phone custom-fitted for music lovers, with a dedicated processor for high-resolution audio (including uncompressed FLAC files), a pair of headphone jacks built into it, some decent-looking Marshall Mode earbuds, a top-mounted button that quickly fires up the phone’s music UI, a five-band global equalizer, and a scroll wheel for adjusting volume with precision while it’s in your pocket. It also scratches a couple more-conventional smartphone itches, with a user-replaceable 2500mAh battery and a MicroSD storage slot.

While the phone hasn’t officially been announced in the U.S. just yet—there’s a page on Marshall’s Swedish site that lists all the phone’s features and specs—it will be in a few hours according to the site’s countdown clock. There’s no pricing information on the U.S. version of the site for now.

Hardware differentiation and specialization are growing trends in the smartphone universe—we have “luxury” phones from Vertu and Lamborghini, a smartphone with a large image sensor from Panasonic, and Samsung’s wrap-around Edge screen, for example—but any successful hook will likely show up in market-leading phones before long. Dual-headphone jacks and hi-res audio capabilities seem like features that may become mainstream soon.

Friday, April 10, 2015

How can you save 1000 people now

Hey .. my dear readers this post is not like my regular post. Let me start.

 I saw many people sharing updates in facebook, twitter and other networking sites about
Helping others. Like "Share this post it can save a life". Here i am telling about my trouble. I am about to start my startup, of course money is a one main asset that determines the success of everystartup. I am not asking you to pay me through paypal or other fund transferring mediums.

I want you to raise fund for my startup 
      I have a youtube channel and also Youtube partnership. So youtube will pay me for the advertisements that will displayed in my videos( i ll get paid only by clicking on advertisements in my videos). So i request all large hearted people to watch my video and to click on advertisemetns. I think i am the first person who raise fund for startup like this. I don't have the skills to attract people so you please reach this post to maximum people.I am sure that my startup can give much more employment. It is a food related startup.So please..... Now it is your turn.

My Channel :
Whatsapp: +919061797949
Videos:Please Click on ads.